specialists in production of supercritical fluids systems.

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The micronization of pharmaceutical powders by traditional technologies (jet milling) allows to obtain powders having particle size of the order of micrometers (thousandths of a millimeter). Generally, no grinding media is involved. Size reduction is the result of the high-velocity collisions between particles of the process material itself. This technology does not allow, however, the obtaining of reproducible particle sizes of nanometer order (millionth of a millimeter), particels of high interest in the present pharmaceutical world. Nano-suspensions are highly bioavailable.


There are many variations for the micronization process with supercritical fluids, that can be classified in three main categories: SCF used as solvents for active substances (Group 1), SCF used as antisolvent to precipitate active substances (Group 2), the SCF used for spry drying or aerosolization (Group 3).

Group 1: RESS process (Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions), PGSS (Particle formation from Gas Saturated Solution), RESOLV (Rapid Expansion of a Supercritical Solution Into Liquid Solvent) etc...

Group 2: GAS (Gaseus Anti Solvent), SAS (Supercritical Anti Solvent), SEDS (Solution Enhached Dispersion by Supercritical fluids), sfee (Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Emulsion) etc...

Group 3: CAN-DB processes (Carbon dioxide Assisted Nebulization with Bubble Dryer), SAA (Supercritical Fluid Assisted Atomization)

Among these groups, the most important and used are: RESS, PGSS, SAS, GAS and SAA

 

Applications

The most interesting applications are the mcronizzation, the nanonizzation, coating, preparation of liposomes or impregnation.

In the table below please see some examples:

 

SCF Technique

Active Ingredient

Material

Application

RESS

Artemisinin

Diclofenac

Bechlomethasone-17,21-diapropionate

Lidocaine

Digitoxin

Raloxifen

Cefuroxime axetil

Red phosphorous

Lipase and lysozyme

Dextran and fluoroscein isothiocya-nate

Paraffin

Polymethylmethacrylate, PEG, polylactic acid (PLA), pol-ylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) and PEG-PPG (polypropelene glycol)-PEG

Phospholipids and cholesterol

Micronization

Micronization

Particle morphology

Particle Morphology

Micronization

Micronization

Nanonization

Coating

Coating

Liposomes

PGSS

YNS3107

Human growth hormone

PEG 400, PEG 4000 and Poloxamer 407

PLGA and PLA

Micronize solid dispersion

Microparticles

RESAS

Cyclosporine

Phospholipid

Nanoparticles

GAS

Puerarin

Polymorphs

SAS

Amoxicillin

Naproxen

Cefuroxime axitel

Rifampcin

Vitamin-D3

Methyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose

Polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30

Poly (L-lactide)

Phosphotidylcholine

Micronization

Microspheres

Microparticles

Microparticles

Pro-liposome

SEDS

Terbutalin sulphate

Morphine

Lysozyme

PLA

Polymorphs

Microparticles

Drying of proteins and peptides

SFEE

Indomethacin and ketoprofen

Tripalmitin, tristearin and Gelucire 50/13

Solid lipid nanoparticles

CAN-BD

Ibuprofen

Myristic acid and tripalmitin

Solid lipid microparticles

SAA

Cefadroxil

Cromolyn sodium

Micronization

Micronization

 

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